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Interstitial Cystitis: Bladder Pain, Discomfort & Management


Interstitial Cystitis (IC), part of a spectrum of diseases known as Bladder Pain Syndrome (BPS), is a chronic medical condition characterized by recurring discomfort or pain in the bladder and surrounding pelvic region along with urinary frequency and urgency. The pain ranges from mild discomfort to severe pain.   

Interstitial cystitis mostly often affects women and can have a long-lasting impact on their social life, exercise, sleep, and even their ability to work causing physical and emotional distress. Although there is no cure, medicines, and other treatments may provide some relief.  

This article will delve into the intricacies of interstitial cystitis, exploring its symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and effective management strategies. Interstitial cystitis research in Michigan exploring potential new treatment options may help women manage their symptoms effectively and maintain their regular routines.   

How Common is IC/BPS?

Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome is a prevalent condition. As many as 90% of people with IC are women. It affects approximately 1 to 4 million men and 3 to 8 million women in the United States. 

What are the Signs and Symptoms of Interstitial Cystitis?

The signs and symptoms of interstitial cystitis differ from person to person. If anyone has interstitial cystitis, their symptoms may change over time, periodically flaring in response to usual triggers like menstruation, prolonged sitting, stress, exercise, and sexual activity. 

Among the signs and symptoms of interstitial cystitis are: 

  • Pain in the pelvis or between the vagina and anus (In women) 
  • Pain between the scrotum and the anus (in men) 
  • Chronic pelvic pain  
  • A constant, intense urge to urinate 
  • Frequent urination, usually in small quantities, throughout the day and night 
  • Pain or discomfort as the bladder fills, followed by relief after peeing 
  • Pain during sex 

The severity of symptoms varies from person to person, and some people may have symptom-free periods. Although the signs and symptoms of interstitial cystitis may resemble those of a chronic urinary tract infection, there’s usually no infection. However, if a person with interstitial cystitis has a urinary tract infection, their symptoms may intensify. 

What Causes Interstitial Cystitis?

The exact cause of interstitial cystitis is unknown. But many factors likely contribute to it, including: 

  • Bladder Lining Defect: Research suggests, the protective lining of the bladder in people with IC may be compromised allowing irritating substances in urine to enter the bladder wall. 
  • Autoimmune Factors: Autoimmune mechanisms may play a role in the development of interstitial cystitis, resulting in persistent bladder inflammation. 
  • Neurological Dysfunction: Dysfunction in the nerves that control bladder function may have a role in IC, resulting in increased sensitivity and discomfort. 

How can we Diagnose Interstitial Cystitis?

There is no test for interstitial cystitis. If one visits the doctor complaining of bladder discomfort and pain along with the frequency, and an urgent need to urinate, the next step is to rule out any other possibilities. In women, endometriosis is another possible diagnosis. For men, IC may be misinterpreted as an inflamed prostate or persistent pelvic discomfort.

Other conditions can be ruled out using these tests: 

  1. Medical History and Physical Examination: 
  • Detailed Patient History: Healthcare professionals frequently begin by gathering a full medical history, which includes a detailed description of symptoms, their duration, and any factors that may aggravate or relieve them. 
  • Physical Examination: A pelvic examination may be conducted to examine discomfort, muscle tone, and signs of other pelvic conditions. 

       2. Diagnostic Procedures: 

  • Urinalysis: This test is used to rule out urinary tract infections or other bladder-related problems. 
  • Cystoscopy: It is a visual examination of the bladder that uses a thin, flexible tube with a camera to detect symptoms of inflammation or other abnormalities. 
  • Potassium Sensitivity Test: Instilling a solution into the bladder to determine discomfort levels, which aids in the confirmation of an IC diagnosis. 
  • Bladder and Urethral Biopsies: A small piece of tissue is taken out and examined. This is commonly done during a cystoscopy. 
  • Bladder Stretching: The bladder is filled with fluids or gas to help it expand. Sometimes this is also used as a treatment. This is also done using a cystoscopy. 

How can we Manage Interstitial Cystitis?

For about half the cases, interstitial cystitis resolves on its own. Many individuals in need of treatment find relief and return to regular life. Treatment focuses mostly on symptom management. Finding the best possible treatment combination requires trial and error. It frequently takes weeks or months to relieve the symptoms. 

The first stage of treatment is to avoid triggers and make lifestyle adjustments focusing on interstitial cystitis self-care that may relieve symptoms. 

Changes in Lifestyle:

  • Changes in Diet: Avoiding or limiting certain foods and beverages (bladder irritants) that may irritate the bladder, such as coffee, alcohol, and spicy foods. 
  • Stress management: Stress reduction strategies such as mindfulness, meditation, and yoga can help ease symptoms. 

If lifestyle changes are insufficient, then the doctor suggests the next line of treatments: 


  • Oral Medications: To treat symptoms, antihistamines, tricyclic antidepressants, and pentosan polysulfate sodium may be administered. 
  • Bladder Instillations: Medications administered directly into the bladder via catheter can help relieve symptoms. 

Physical therapy:

  • Pelvic Floor Therapy: For some people, targeted exercises to strengthen and relax the pelvic floor muscles might bring comfort. 

Stimulation of Nerves:

  • Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS): This therapy includes administering low-voltage electrical currents to the pelvic region to modify nerve activity and relieve pain. 


Individuals suffering from interstitial cystitis deal with unique challenges, but with a multifaceted approach to treatment, they can find relief and improve their quality of life. From understanding the symptoms and potential causes to receiving an accurate diagnosis and implementing effective management strategies, a comprehensive approach is key to managing interstitial cystitis successfully. As research continues, there is still hope for improved treatments and a better understanding of this complex and often perplexing disorder.  

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